The Manuscript Codex * Textblock
A motif, visible in transmitted light, incorporated into a sheet of paper while it is made. These motifs sometimes distinguish particular papermaking workshops or markets for which the paper was made. It is generally thought that watermarks were used by papermakers in Europe but there may be rare exceptions. As the wires that create the watermark must be woven onto a papermaking mold, the relatively short lifetime of a mold determines how long that exact watermark will be used. Another watermark, even one very similar in design, will still have small differences that distinguish it. Thus the date associated with a specific watermark in a dated manuscript can usually be given to the same paper found in otherwise undated manuscripts, unless there are compelling reasons to think otherwise.
# A watermark consisting of an Islamic inscription has been located on paper that also appears to be of Islamic manufacture. (Ref: A. Shafi-Leblanc, 'Un exemple rare de contremarque du viiie/xive siècle en langue et caractère arabes', in: The Trade in Papers Marked with Non-Latin Characters, ed. A. Regourd, pp. 190-205).
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UBL OR. 44b