The Manuscript Codex * Materials
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Water-based media in which a colorant in particulate form is held in suspension or which is a colored solution.  An adhesive binder is also added to fix the colorant to the surface of the support.  Application is usually made with a pen (qalam), and the word often implies the production of written text.
 
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UBL Or. 107

 

AUTHORS: PAUL HEPWORTH AND KARIN SCHEPER